Transportation service sector is one of the dominant sectors of national economy. Efficiency and performance of this sector greatly depends on the conditions of physical infrastructure and transport management. The division of ministry of physical infrastructure and transport are located within the Ministry and manned by the Joint Secretaries, Under Secretaries, Engineers, Section Officers and other supporting staffs. Some of the divisions are Administration Division, Foreign Aid and Quality Standards Division, Planning Monitoring and Evaluation Division, Work and Transport Division. Some of the departments and institutions under ministry are Department of Roads, Department of Transport Management, Department of Railways, Road Board Nepal and Nepal Engineering Council.

Source: http://www.mopit.gov.np/

Vehicle overloading is one of the main problems related to the life of the road pavement and bridge structure. In most of the cases, the vehicle overloading is caused by freight vehicles, i.e., trucks, tipper-trucks, dump trucks etc. Vehicle overloading is taken as one of the causes for the premature failure of pavement which results in the huge amount of cost of pavement maintenance and vehicle operation. It has great economic impact related to the transport infrastructure as well as price of commodity. Therefore, control of vehicle overloading is being taken as one of the important provisions of transport regulation worldwide.

Some of the projects under Department of Local Infrastructure (DOLI) are Local Bridge Program- Phase IV, Small Irrigation Program- Phase I, Rural Village Water Resources Management Project Phase III, Provincial and Local Governance Support Program (PLGSP) and Provincial and Local Roads Construction and Improvement Porgram (PLRCIP). 

Source: https://doli.gov.np/doligov/

The government has allocated fund for Provincial and Local Road Construction and Improvement Program (PLRCIP) SINCE the Fiscal Year 2076-2077 (FY 2020/21). Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration (MoFAGA) and Department of Local Infrastructure (DOLI) are the implement partners. The key activities of the project are construction of one selected alignment to paved standard of all 283 LG centres that are yet to be connected, construction shall include natural crossings for due interconnection of Local-level administrative centres with national and provincial road networks year around, converting of all Fair-weather (no engineered) roads into all-weather (engineered) roads in a phased manner, internalize improvement of roads with inclusion of maintenance as the integral part and reduce technical and managerial capacity gaps of local levels.

As of mid-March, of fiscal year 2020/21, under the Safe Citizen Housing Program the roof replacement activity is ongoing in 143,218 houses of 753 local levels after fixing the number of houses at local levels for the replacement of thatched roof with zinc sheets. In fiscal year 2019/20, out of 14,019 beneficiaries selected under the Safe Citizen Housing Program, 805 beneficiaries received this facility. So far, 6,414 beneficiaries have received the facility from Safe Citizen Housing program.

As of mid-March of 2021, the total length of the road has reached 33,528 kilometers including 15,974 kilometers blacktop (including strategic and local road networks), 8,582 kilometers gravelled and 9,972 kilometers fair-weather. By mid-July 2020, there were 33,244 kilometers of roads including 15,424 kilometers blacktop, 8,622 kilometers gravelled and 9,198 kilometers of fair weather.

Road Expansion by Federal Government (in Kilometers)
 
Details 2015/16 2016/17 2017/18 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21 Total
Black Topped 12173 12803 13707 14695 15424 550 15974
Graveled 6460 6822 7231 8594 8622 504 8582
Earthen 9675 9492 9150 9590 9198 284 8972
Total 28308 29117 30088 32879 33244 1338 33528

Source: Ministry of Physical Infrastructure  and Transport, 2021  * Till mid-March

Status of Road Expansion in Last Five Years
 
Details Unit 2015/16 2016/17 2017/18 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21*
New road construction KM 639 809 971 440 365 284
Upgraded to Gravelled
KM 345 992 1313 1363 757 504
Upgraded to black topped
KM 264 630 904 988 729 550
Road Maintenance (Regular) KM 9200 9500 9500 14719 7200 7187
Periodic Maintenance KM 443 214 332 332 360 187
Bridge construction Number 63 72 82 230 210 129

Source: Ministry of Physical Infrastructure  and Transport, 2021  * Till mid-March
  
As of mid-March 2021, a total of 63,577 kilometers of roads including blacktop, gravel and fair weather were constructed at the province and local levels. Of the total road construction, Bagmati province has the highest 24.7 percent and Karnali province the lowest 5.1 percent. The density of road in Bagmati province is highest whereas it is the lowest in Province 2.

Provincewise details of local Roads* (in kilometers)
 
Province Earthen Graveled Black Topped Total Roads Provincewise Share
(in percent)
Road Density
1 9492 2522 768 12782 20.11 0.49
2 2733 2854 378 5965 9.38 0.62
Bagmati 11734 2690 1268 15692 24.68 0.77
Gandaki 9596 1252 646 11494 18.08 0.53
Lumbini 5428 2712 911 9051 14.24 0.41
Karnali 2969 209 89 3266 5.14 0.12
Sudurpaschim 3954 1158 214 5326 8.38 0.27
Grand Total 45906 13397 4274 63577 100 0.43

Source: Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration, 2021
 


As of mid-July of 2020, a total of 63321 kilometer of roads including fair weather, gravel and blacktop were constructed at province and local levels whereas during the mid-March of the current fiscal year an additional 256 kilometers of roads were constructed making a total of 63,577 kilometers of roads. Of the total constructed roads, the share of blacktop, gravel and fair-weather was 7.0 percent, 21.0 percent and roads 72.0 percent, respectively.

Details of Roads Constructed by Province and Local Levels (in kilometers)
 
Deails of Roads 2015/16 2016/17 2017/18 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21
Earthen 38940 42840 43190 43950 45693 45906
Gravelled 12513 12830 13160 13560 13416 13397
Black Topped 1857 2269 2735 3963 4212 4274
Grand Total 53310 57939 59085 61473 63321 63577

Source: Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration, 2021 *Till mid-March 2021
 
 
Of the total registered vehicles, bus, an important medium of public transportation is 1.4 percent and the share of two – wheeler motorcycles are 79.3 percent.

As per the government policy to encourage the production and use of electricity, the production and consumption of electricity is increasing. The access to electricity of the population has reached 93.0 percent with the increase of the electricity production. As of mid-July 2020, the access to electricity was 90.0 percent of the population.

Details of Provincewise Access to Electricity
 
Province 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21*
1 75.9 86.3 82.43
2 79.77 87.25 99.05
Bagmati 90.3 95.83 94.44
Gandaki 87.39 87.48 92.79
Lumbini 81.03 89.07 91
Karnali 27.03 27.74 34.75
Far West (Sudurpaschim) 58.9 67.33 64.69
Population having access of Alternative Energy 3.0 percent
Nepal (including alternative energy) 88.0 90.0 93.0

Source: Nepal Electricity Authority, 2021 * Till mid-March
 
Source: https://www.mof.gov.np/uploads/document/file/1633341980_Economic%20Survey%20(Engslish)%202020-21.pdf

Key Terms

•    Projects under Department of Local Infrastructure
•    Status of local and provincial roads
•    Safe House Citizen Program
•    Problems of vehicles
•    Road Expansion
•    Vehicle overloading
 

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